Severe accidents in nuclear power industry (Three Mile Island, Chernobyl) brought NIKIET to the development of a fast lead-cooled reactor (BREST) concept at the end of the 1980s, which dramatically changed approaches to safety. To overcome contradictions between safety requirements and economical efficiency when designing a new-generation fast reactor, a new approach to selecting fundamental engineering solutions was proposed. It involves successive implementation of the inherent (or intrinsic) safety principle achieved not by building up expensive engineering barriers and complex safety systems, but mainly due to natural laws, physical and chemical fuel and coolant properties and the design solutions that contribute to realization of these properties to the fullest extent possible.
The BREST-OD-300 innovative fast lead-cooled reactor is developed as a pilot demonstration prototype for base-type commercial reactor facilities of the future nuclear power industry with the closed nuclear fuel cycle. To date, experimental justification of components, elements and equipment of reactor facilities has been carried out using small- and medium-scale mock-ups and pilot models. Validated and certified software tools were used for computational design justification. The safety analysis showed that the probability of severe accidents with conservative scenarios due to internal causes was no more than 6,48∙10-9 1/year. In such accidents, there is no loss of reactor core integrity with fuel and cladding meltdown, coolant boiling, and the radioactive release does not exceed the daily reference value. In severe accidents at the unit with a probability of 3.2∙10-8 1/year there is no need for evacuation and resettlement of the population.
The developed design documentation makes it possible to proceed to the construction of the BREST-OD-300 power unit as part of a pilot and demonstration energy complex (PDEC) with concurrent completion of activities aimed at bringing safety justification documentation to conformity with current common and developed specific standards for lead-cooled reactor facilities. At the PDEC site, pilot operation of the BREST-OD-300 reactor will be carried out in the closed nuclear fuel cycle conditions, endurance characteristics of the reactor facility and its equipment will be demonstrated, and an extensive R&D program, which is also required for commercial lead-cooled reactor facilities, will be carried out.
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|Country/Int. organization||Russian Federation|