For a State, one essential element of the security of radioactive sources is an effective national regulatory framework that provides for control over these radioactive sources. In many countries, the regulatory framework was initially developed based on safety concerns. Due to increasing concerns related to the security of radioactive sources and materials, States began to establish nuclear security regulatory infrastructures, either parallel to or in affiliation with the already existing safety regulatory infrastructures (e.g. using the same regulatory agency and/or competent authority for radiation safety).
In either case, there is a need to ensure that there is coordination and integration of safety and security frameworks in a sustainable manner. With respect to this, States must consider the consistency of regulatory functions, processes and requirements for both the safety and security of radioactive sources.
In order to establish and maintain sustainable nuclear security regulatory infrastructures for radioactive sources, it is important for States to understand the relationship between nuclear safety and security regulatory infrastructure requirements and recommendations. Some international requirements and/or recommendations in the area of safety and security of radioactive sources are identical or very similar, for example, the requirement for the establishment of a national registry of radioactive sources. However, some other requirements are unique solely to the security area, such as the requirement to examine the trustworthiness of employees, or solely to the safety area, such as the need to establish public exposure controls. Additionally, many requirements and/or recommendations fall somewhere in between, such as the need for effective authorization of facilities and activities, a regulatory inspection and enforcement regime and the graded approach to establish and apply regulatory requirements.
As such, the proposed paper will examine how international requirements and/or recommendations for establishing regulatory frameworks for safety and security relate to one another. The analysis will provide a detailed categorization of the range of requirements and/or recommendations in IAEA publications and will focus on identifying those that are essentially identical and those that are unique to safety or security. This will undoubtedly help States, experts worldwide, competent authorities and operating organizations to get a better perspective on the means and ways to harmonize, coordinate and integrate safety and security measures and systems into a strengthened sustainable regulatory framework for the safety and security of radioactive sources.