• Steps to strengthen the international nuclear safety framework and how to overcome obstacles to achieving them.
• Translating the safety culture concept into legal requirements.
• Moving from a Code of Conduct to a Treaty.
• Legal implications of the long-term operation of nuclear power plants.
• Radiopharmaceuticals – gaps, denial of shipments, nuclear liability.
• International licensing and alternative approaches - legal issues.
• Legal aspects of multilateral cooperation on the back-end of the fuel cycle - potential for multinational approaches to the management of used nuclear fuel and nuclear waste.
• Regional cooperation on radioactive waste and used fuel final disposal – the required legal frameworks.
• Measures to bolster security of supply of radioactive material.
• Post-Fukushima Legal Developments.
• Emergency preparedness and response legal considerations for new technologies.
• Overview of the international legal framework for nuclear security and its implementation through national nuclear security regimes - progress, challenges, and opportunities for improvement.
• Computer security - applicability of the current international nuclear legal framework.
• Is the amended Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material adequate to its task and can review conferences strengthen the debate?
• New technologies such as drones, artificial intelligence, 3D printing - the adequacy of existing legal frameworks and synergies with other areas of law.
• Nuclear security and safeguards legal framework – extent of synergies.
• Towards a global nuclear liability regime – progress made and what next?
• The need for a special regime in particular with respect to fusion reactors, radioactive sources, and low risk facilities.
• Challenges with the implementation of the nuclear liability principles such as to the long-term management of radioactive waste.
• Nuclear liability and the transport of nuclear material.
• Heads of damage - clarifying the scope of damage covered.
• Limited or unlimited liability of operators.
• Adequate compensation, financial security, delivery of compensation and the role of Governments.
• Insurance of nuclear risks.
• Claims processing – the need for advance clarification of procedures and standards and expeditious delivery of compensation through judicial and non-judicial means.
Safeguards, Other Verification Activities and Export ControlsA4
• Safeguards required under various legal instruments/arrangements such as the NPT and the NWFZ treaties.
• IAEA and State responsibilities in the implementation of safeguards: increasing cooperation to facilitate verification of the correctness and completeness of States safeguards declarations.
• At what point should States that have been found to be in non-compliance with their safeguards agreement be treated again like other States?
• IAEA verification and monitoring in connection with ad hoc arrangements such as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), the “Agreed Framework between the United States and the DPRK” and the “Six Party Talks”.
• How the IAEA pursues issues that relate to States’ nuclear weapons design, fabrication, component testing and related dual use items which do not involve nuclear material?
• National and international approaches to export controls and their synergies with the nuclear non-proliferation objectives of the IAEA safeguards system (e.g. the work of the Nuclear Suppliers’ Group, national approaches to export controls, as well as current challenges with respect to new technology and equipment).
Nuclear Law – Interactions and ContradictionsB1
• Management of transboundary nuclear risks - rights, duties and obligations; and mechanisms for neighbouring States to ensure that their interests are taken into account; and civil liability for nuclear damage.
Nuclear New BuildB2
• Responsibilities of recipients and suppliers.
• Legal framework for regional cooperation on research reactors.
• Contractual Approaches - long-term involvement of Supplier States in project construction and operation.
• Foreign technology and contractor selection.
• Newcomer countries – beyond the Milestones Approach.
• Legal aspects of economics and financing of nuclear power plants.
National Legal FrameworksB3
• Legislative frameworks and the role, functions, and independence of regulatory bodies.
• National nuclear legislative frameworks tested by the pandemic crisis - lessons learned.
• Synergies between national nuclear laws and other laws in the country.
• The concept of nuclear governance integrating legal aspects of 3S+EP+L (Safety, Security, Safeguards, Emergency Preparedness and Nuclear Liability).
• Non-power nuclear technology applications - legal issues.
Legal Framework for New Nuclear TechnologiesB5
• Fusion, small modular rectors and transportable nuclear power plants, Micro-reactors employed in space for propulsion or fixed energy generation.
Stakeholder Involvement, Public Participation and TransparencyB6
• What is state of the art and what more can be done?
• Capacity-building programmes in nuclear law.
• National Experiences.
• Professional development and training.