Crop improvement program through radiation induced mutation breeding was initiated nine decades ago. India has made significant progress in the field of mutation breeding in different crop species. Rice is a staple food for Indian population with nearly 70% population deriving daily dietary needs from rice. With changing consumer preferences, global climate change, changing pest dynamics and awareness to human health, rice breeding activities, specially in mutation breeding, have been modified with time to cater to these problems. Mutation breeding activities at BARC are focussed with an objective to develop fine and better grain quality rice, salt and drought tolerant rice, bio-fortified rice with high Fe/Zn, medicinal rice with higher yield and better grain quality etc. Recently TKR Kolam (Trombay Karjat Kolam Rice), a very fine grain (short slender: test weight 11.0g), high grain density (250 spikelets/panicle), high yielding (4.5t/ha), high milling% (73%) and tolerance to pest and diseases rice variety have been released through mutation breeding. India has highest diversity for aromatic and scented rice but is becoming extinct due to its poor yield and undesirable agronomic traits. Radiation induced mutation breeding has been instrumental in improving these landraces. A highly scented, dwarf (100cm), high yielding (4.5 t/ha), with better milling recovery (71.6%) and head rice recovery (69.2%), non-lodging and better grain quality mutant of aromatic rice variety ‘Dubraj’ was released as TCDM-1 (Trombay Chhattisgarh Dubraj Mutant-1). Salinity and drought stress are major abiotic stress affecting more than 15mha land in India and causing significant yield losses. Gamma ray induced mutation breeding have resulted in improved salt tolerant rice selections which will benefit farmers in coastal region on India. Recently advanced high energy ion beams induced mutation breeding activity were initiated for CSR27, IBD-1, Samudchini, Nagina 22 and Dagardeshi rice varieties with an aim to develop climate resilient rice varieties for future. Medicinal values of some traditional rice varieties from Chhattisgarh, India are known to cure different health problems in human and animals. These landraces are being agronomically evaluated and improved through mutation breeding. Mutation breeding will continue to play a significant role in rice improvement program for solving national food security in coming years and decades.
|Country or International Organization||India|