INFCIRC/225 “The Nuclear Security Recommendations on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities” is key IAEA document defining objectives and elements of a State’s physical protection regime. Its latest revision, INFCIRC/225/Revision 5 issued in 2011, first introduces concept of sustainability into physical protection activity. In particular, it recommends that “The State should establish sustainability programme to ensure that its physical protection regime is sustained and effective in the long term by committing the necessary resources”. It further recommends that “Operators, shippers and carriers should establish sustainability programmes for their physical protection system” and lists elements of sustainability programme. The issue of sustainability first became part of nuclear security agenda within the framework of nuclear security cooperation between the United States and Russia. This cooperation started shortly after the collapse of the Soviet Union and was aimed at improving nuclear security at Russian nuclear facilities, as well as developing national nuclear security infrastructure. Major source of funding was the United States federal budget, as economic conditions in Russia did not allow financial support for nuclear security adequate to the challenge. This led to the situation, when maintenance and upgrade of nuclear security in Russia became highly dependent on the U.S. funding support and concern arose re Russia’s own capability to upgrade and maintain proper level of nuclear security after withdrawal of the U.S. funding support. To address this challenge a concept of sustainability was introduced and a range of projects was initiated aimed at ensuring that nuclear security in Russia is sustainable and Russia has all the necessary capabilities to independently maintain and improve nuclear security over indefinite period of time. Similar efforts were implemented within the framework of other technical assistance programs implemented by the U.S. in other countries. While development of physical protection systems in countries that were not part of the nuclear security cooperation with the U.S. might follow different path and face different issues, effort to develop sustainable nuclear security in Russia can provide multiple lessons that can be used in implementing sustainability recommendations of INFCIRC/225/Revision 5. This paper will review experience of developing sustainable nuclear security in Russia and identify lessons that can be used in implementing sustainability programmes in other countries following IAEA recommendations.